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IoT Protocols: MQTT vs. HTTP vs. WebSockets on AWS IoT Core

Atisha Shaurya
Atisha Shaurya
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In the world of IoT (Internet of Things), the choice of communication protocol is crucial to ensure efficient and reliable data exchange between devices and the cloud. AWS IoT Core, Amazon Web Services’ managed IoT service, supports several communication protocols, each with its own strengths and use cases. In this blog post, we’ll compare three prominent IoT protocols – MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), and WebSockets – to help you make an informed decision when working with AWS IoT Core.

MQTT: Lightweight and Publish-Subscribe

MQTT, originally developed by IBM, is a lightweight, efficient, and widely used protocol for IoT applications. It operates on a publish-subscribe model, where devices (publishers) send data to topics, and other devices (subscribers) receive data from those topics.

Advantages of MQTT:

  1. Low Overhead: MQTT’s minimal overhead makes it an ideal choice for resource-constrained IoT devices with limited bandwidth and processing power.
  2. Asynchronous Communication: MQTT enables asynchronous communication, allowing devices to send and receive data independently without waiting for responses.
  3. Quality of Service (QoS): MQTT supports three levels of QoS, ensuring message delivery reliability according to the application’s requirements.
  4. Last Will and Testament (LWT): MQTT includes a LWT feature that allows devices to notify the broker when they unexpectedly disconnect, aiding in monitoring device health.
  5. Scalability: MQTT is highly scalable, making it suitable for IoT applications with thousands or even millions of devices.

Use Cases:

  • Home automation and smart devices
  • Industrial automation and telemetry
  • Asset tracking and monitoring

HTTP: Familiar and Request-Response

HTTP, the protocol powering the World Wide Web, is a well-known and widely adopted protocol for data transfer. While it’s not as lightweight as MQTT, it’s still a viable option for IoT applications.

Advantages of HTTP:

  1. Standardized: HTTP is a standard protocol that most developers are familiar with, simplifying integration with existing web services.
  2. Security: HTTPS (HTTP Secure) provides encryption and authentication, ensuring secure data transmission.
  3. Request-Response: HTTP follows a request-response model, which can be advantageous for applications where real-time response is necessary.
  4. Cross-platform: Devices with internet connectivity can communicate using HTTP, regardless of their underlying technology stack.

Use Cases:

  • Web applications and dashboards
  • RESTful APIs for IoT devices
  • Integration with existing web services

WebSockets: Full Duplex and Real-time

WebSockets is a protocol that provides full-duplex, bidirectional communication channels over a single TCP connection. It is designed for real-time applications that require low latency, such as chat applications and online gaming.

Advantages of WebSockets:

  1. Low Latency: WebSockets offer extremely low latency, making them suitable for real-time IoT applications that demand immediate responses.
  2. Bi-directional Communication: WebSockets enable simultaneous data transmission in both directions, allowing IoT devices to send and receive data without polling.
  3. Efficiency: Compared to constantly polling a server for updates, WebSockets are more efficient as they reduce unnecessary network traffic.
  4. Persistent Connections: WebSockets maintain a persistent connection, reducing the overhead of establishing new connections for each data exchange.

Use Cases:

  • Real-time monitoring and control of IoT devices
  • Interactive applications requiring low latency
  • Live data streaming for analytics

Choosing the Right Protocol for AWS IoT Core

Selecting the appropriate protocol for your AWS IoT Core implementation depends on your specific use case and device requirements. Here are some guidelines:

  • MQTT: Use MQTT when you need efficient, low-overhead, and asynchronous communication, especially for resource-constrained devices.
  • HTTP: Choose HTTP when you require standardization, integration with web services, or a request-response communication pattern.
  • WebSockets: Opt for WebSockets when you demand real-time, bidirectional communication with minimal latency, suitable for interactive IoT applications.

It’s worth noting that AWS IoT Core supports all three of these protocols, allowing you to mix and match them within a single application or device fleet based on your needs.


Selecting the right communication protocol is a critical decision when designing IoT solutions with AWS IoT Core. MQTT, HTTP, and WebSockets each offer unique advantages and are well-suited to specific use cases. By understanding the strengths of these protocols and matching them to your IoT project’s requirements, you can ensure efficient, reliable, and real-time communication between your devices and the AWS cloud, unlocking the full potential of your IoT ecosystem.

Atisha Shaurya

Atisha Shaurya

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