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Lokeshwaran Subramaniyan
Lokeshwaran Subramaniyan
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Introduction: Playwright testing

In today’s fast-paced software development environment, end-to-end testing is essential for ensuring the dependability and quality of online applications. Popular testing framework Playwright excels at automating end-to-end tests across a variety of platforms and browsers. We’ll go over the fundamentals of Playwright in this tutorial, along with step-by-step instructions to get you started on your end-to-end testing journey with Playwright.

Understanding the Basics of Playwright: 

1. What is Playwright and why is it gaining traction? 

Playwright is a library for automating web testing that runs against the most popular engines: Chromium for Chrome and Edge, Webkit for Safari, and Gecko for Firefox. It uses the DevTools protocol to write powerful, stable automated tests. 

It is becoming more popular as a result of its distinctive qualities, which are uncommon in contemporary automation frameworks.

  1. Multi-Language Support: Playwright supports JavaScript, C#, Java and Python programming languages. There is no limitation on the language you want to use. 
  1. CodeGen: It can record tests with Playwright Code Gen, when we start with CodeGen it will generate a test script. 
  1. Testing Safari on Windows: When we install Playwright Framework, a number of browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Webkit, and others, are also installed. Since the Webkit browser is an open-source alternative to Safari, we are testing Safari features on Windows computers by running the Webkit browser in that environment.
  1. Emulate devices: We can emulate devices and run our tests just by using a single command with Playwright. 
  2. Create PDF: Playwright has the ability to create PDF files, which sets it apart from other frameworks.
  3. Test Retries: This is a standard feature, but the playwright also offers it, allowing us to set the number of test retries.
  4. Allure Report: Playwright offers an Allure Report Integration function, which is something that many people want.

2. Supported browsers and platforms- 

Playwright supports a range of browsers and platforms for end-to-end testing. Here are the supported browsers and platforms as of my knowledge – 
Browsers: Chromium (Chrome), Webkit (Safari), Firefox
Platforms: Windows, Mac-OS, Linux

3. Setting Up Environment: 

 These are a few simple steps for setting the playwright’s environment- 

  1. Prerequisites: Make sure you have Java JDK (Java Development Kit) installed on your system. You can download it from the Oracle website or adopt OpenJDK.
  1. Ensure you have a compatible Java IDE installed, such as IntelliJ IDEA or Eclipse.
  1. Create a Maven Project: Open your preferred Java IDE and create a new Maven project. If you’re using IntelliJ IDEA, you can choose the “Maven” project type and provide a GroupId, ArtifactId, and Project Name.
  1. Add Playwright Java Dependency: Open your project’s pom.xml file and add the Playwright Java dependency.
<!-- Other dependencies -->
<version>1.13.0</version> <!-- Replace with the latest version -->
  1. Playwright doesn’t really rely on Node.js to manage browser installations and provide a communication bridge between the Java code and the underlying browser automation functionality.
    Playwright provides official bindings for various programming languages such as JavaScript/Node.js, Java, Python, and C#. When working with Playwright in a Java environment, there is no need to install Node.js and npm. Instead, you can utilize the Java bindings to seamlessly set up Playwright, manage browser drivers, and control browser instances within your Java-based projects.
  2. To execute the Playwright tests, you can run the Java test classes using your IDE’s test runner or using build tools like Maven.

4. Writing Your First Playwright Test

Launching Browsers (Java):
The Playwright class must be used to create a new instance before Playwright can be used to launch a browser in Java. An illustration:


public class FirstPlaywrightTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        try (Playwright playwright = Playwright.create()) {
            Browser browser = playwright.chromium().launch();
            Page page = browser.newPage();
            // Perform required actions

In the above code, we create an instance of Playwright using the Playwright.create() method. Then, we use the chromium() method to create a Browser instance, and launch() to launch the Chromium browser. Finally, we create a new Page using the newPage() method of the Browser instance.

Navigating Web Pages (Java):
Once the browser is launched, you can navigate to web pages using the Page instance. Here’s an example:

// ...
Page page = browser.newPage();
// Wait for the page to load
// Get the page title
String pageTitle = page.title();
System.out.println("Page Title: " + pageTitle);
// ...

In the above code, we use the navigate() method of the Page instance to load a URL. We then use waitForLoadState() to wait for the page to finish loading before performing any actions. Finally, we retrieve the page title using the title() method.

Interacting with Web Elements (Java):
Playwright provides methods to interact with web elements such as clicking buttons, filling forms, and extracting text. Here’s an example:

// ...
// Clicking a button
ElementHandle button = page.querySelector("button");;

// Filling a form field
ElementHandle input = page.querySelector("input[type='text']");
input.fill("Hello, Playwright!");

// Extracting text from an element
ElementHandle paragraph = page.querySelector("p");
String text = paragraph.innerText();
System.out.println("Text: " + text);

// ...

In the above code, we use the querySelector() method of the Page instance to find specific elements on the page. We then perform actions such as click() on buttons, fill() to enter text into input fields, and retrieve text using the innerText() method.

Performing Actions and Assertions (Java):
Playwright allows you to perform various actions and assertions to validate the behaviour of your web application. Here’s an example:

// ...

// Clicking a button and asserting the resulting page URL
ElementHandle button = page.querySelector("button");;
String currentUrl = page.url();
assertEquals("", currentUrl);

// Asserting the presence of an element
ElementHandle element = page.querySelector("#myElement");

// ...

In the above code, we use click() to perform an action on a button and then wait for navigation to ensure the page has loaded. We then retrieve the current URL using url() and assert its value. Additionally, we use isVisible() to assert the presence of an element on the page.

5. Advanced Playwright Techniques

Working with Multiple Browsers and Pages (Java):
Playwright allows you to work with multiple browsers and pages simultaneously, enabling you to perform complex testing scenarios. Here’s an example:

// ...
BrowserContext context1 = browser.newContext();
Page page1 = context1.newPage();

BrowserContext context2 = browser.newContext();
Page page2 = context2.newPage();

// Perform actions on different pages"button");
page2.fill("input[name='q']", "Playwright");

// ...
// Close contexts and their corresponding pages
// ...

In the above code, we create separate BrowserContext instances using newContext() to isolate browser environments. Then, we create Page instances within each context and navigate to different URLs. You can perform actions and assertions on each page independently.

Handling Asynchronous Operations (Java):
The playwright supports asynchronous operations and provides ways to handle them effectively. Here’s an example:

// ...

// Waiting for an element to appear
ElementHandle element = page.waitForSelector("#myElement");

// Waiting for an element to have a certain text
ElementHandle element = page.waitForSelector("p");
element.waitForText("Hello, Playwright!");

// Waiting for a specific condition
page.waitFor(() -> {
    ElementHandle element = page.querySelector("#myElement");
    return element.isVisible();

// ...

In the above code, we use the waitForSelector() method to wait for an element to appear on the page. We can also use waitForText() to wait for an element to have a specific text value. Additionally, waitFor() allows us to wait for a custom condition to be met before proceeding with further actions.

Taking Screenshots and Capturing Network Traffic (Java):
Playwright provides functionality to capture screenshots and intercept network traffic during tests. Here’s an example:

// ...

page.screenshot(new Page.ScreenshotOptions().setPath("screenshot.png")); // Capture screenshot

page.route("**/*", route -> { // Intercept network requests
    Request request = route.request();
    System.out.println("URL: " + request.url());

In the above code, we use the screenshot() method to capture a screenshot of the current page and save it to a file. We can also use the route() method to intercept network requests and perform custom actions, such as logging or modifying requests.

These examples demonstrate advanced techniques you can utilize in Playwright tests using Java. You can leverage these capabilities to create comprehensive and flexible test scenarios.

6. Best Practice for Playwright Testing

Writing Maintainable and Reliable Tests (Java):
To ensure the maintainability and reliability of your Playwright tests, consider the following best practices:

  • Use descriptive names for your tests and test functions to enhance readability.
  • Avoid hardcoded values by using variables or constants for frequently used values.
  • Keep your tests independent and isolated to avoid dependencies between test cases.
  • Use appropriate assertions to validate expected behaviour and avoid unnecessary or redundant assertions.
  • Leverage Playwright’s built-in debugging and logging capabilities to identify and troubleshoot issues effectively.
  • Implement proper error handling and exception management to gracefully handle any failures during test execution.
  • Regularly review and refactor your tests to improve code quality and maintainability.

Test Organization and Structure (Java):

Organizing and structuring your Playwright tests can greatly improve their manageability. Consider the following practices:

  • Group related tests into logical test suites or classes based on functionality or features.
  • Use descriptive test suites or class names that reflect the purpose or scope of the tests.
  • Utilize annotations or tags to categorize or label tests for easy filtering and execution.
  • Follow a consistent naming convention for test methods within a test suite or class.
  • Leverage setup and teardown methods (such as @Before and @After in JUnit) to handle common test setup and cleanup tasks.
  • Separate test data from test code by using external files or data sources for test data management.

Test Data Management (Java):

Effective management of test data is crucial for maintaining test scalability and reducing code duplication. Consider these practices:

  • Store test data separately from test code to allow for easy modifications and maintenance.
  • Utilize external files (e.g., JSON, XML, CSV) or databases to store test data.
  • Leverage data-driven testing techniques to run the same test with different input data sets.
  • Use data providers or data factories to generate or retrieve test data dynamically during test execution.
  • Ensure that test data is properly cleaned up or reset after each test to maintain test independence and data integrity.

Test Execution and Reporting (Java):

Efficiently executing tests and generating comprehensive reports can improve test visibility and facilitate analysis. Consider these practices:

  • Use test runners (such as JUnit or TestNG) to execute Playwright tests.
  • Leverage parallel test execution to reduce overall test execution time.
  • Generate detailed test reports or logs to capture test results, including successes, failures, and any captured screenshots or network traffic.
  • Integrate with continuous integration (CI) systems to automatically trigger and execute tests on code changes or scheduled intervals.
  • Consider using test management tools or frameworks to track test execution, manage test environments, and collaborate with team members.


In this guide, we covered how to Getting Started with Playwright fundamentals and provided a step-by-step approach to getting started with end-to-end testing. We discussed key features like cross-browser support, robust automation capabilities, debugging tools, and modern web technology support.

We explored advanced techniques like working with multiple browsers and pages, handling asynchronous operations, managing test configuration, and capturing screenshots and network traffic.

For effective tests, we discussed best practices for reliability, organization, test data management, and reporting.

With Playwright’s power and best practices, you can develop robust end-to-end tests, ensuring software quality and reliability.

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Lokeshwaran Subramaniyan

Lokeshwaran Subramaniyan

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