NashTech Insights

JavaScript BigInt: Handling Large Numbers with Precision and Efficiency

Alka Vats
Alka Vats
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In JavaScript, numbers are typically represented using the number data type, which has limitations when it comes to handling large numbers with precision. However, with the introduction of the BigInt data type, JavaScript now provides a solution for working with arbitrarily large integers. In this blog post, we will explore the BigInt data type, its features, and how it enables us to perform calculations with large numbers while maintaining accuracy. We will also examine its performance implications and provide examples to showcase its usage.

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Understanding BigInt

In JavaScript, regular numbers have a maximum safe integer value of 2^53 – 1, beyond which they lose precision. BigInts, on the other hand, have no such limitations and can represent integers of any size. This makes BigInts ideal for handling large numbers with precision. Let’s see an example to understand the difference:

const regularNumber = 9007199254740992;
const bigIntNumber = BigInt("9007199254740992");

console.log(regularNumber); // 9007199254740992
console.log(bigIntNumber); // 9007199254740992n

As we can see, the regular number is represented normally, while the BigInt is appended with the n suffix to indicate its type.

Working with BigInt

BigInts can be created using the BigInt() function or by appending the n suffix to an integer literal. Once created, we can perform various arithmetic operations with BigInts. Let’s explore some examples:

const a = BigInt("123456789012345678901234567890");
const b = BigInt(9876543210);

const sum = a + b;
const product = a * b;

console.log(sum); // 123456789012345678901244444100
console.log(product); // 1219326311370217955030811208933434461900

In the above example, we create two BigInts, a and b, and perform addition and multiplication operations on them. The BigInt data type allows us to handle large numbers accurately, ensuring precise results.

Handling Large Numbers with Precision

One of the main use cases of BigInt is performing calculations with large numbers while maintaining precision. Let’s look at an example of calculating factorials:

function calculateFactorial(n) {
  if (n === 0n || n === 1n) {
    return 1n;
  } else {
    return n * calculateFactorial(n - 1n);

const factorial20 = calculateFactorial(20n);
console.log(factorial20); // 2432902008176640000n

In this example, we define a recursive function, calculateFactorial, to calculate the factorial of a given number. The use of BigInt ensures that the calculation is accurate and can handle large inputs, such as calculating the factorial of 20.

Performance Considerations

While BigInts provide the advantage of handling large numbers, they can be slower to perform operations compared to regular numbers. This is due to the additional computational complexity involved. Therefore, it’s important to consider the performance implications when working with BigInts in performance-critical scenarios.

To mitigate performance issues, it’s recommended to convert BigInts to regular numbers when possible, perform calculations, and then convert back to BigInts if necessary. This can be done using the Number() or parseInt() functions. Let’s see an example:

const bigIntNumber = BigInt("123456789012345678901234567890");
const regularNumber = Number(bigIntNumber);

console.log(regularNumber); // 1.2345678901234568e+29

In the above example, we convert the BigInt to a regular number using the Number() function. This allows us to perform calculations more efficiently and convert back to a BigInt if precision is required.


JavaScript BigInt offers a powerful solution for handling large numbers with precision and efficiency. By using BigInts, developers can perform calculations with arbitrarily large integers while maintaining accuracy. Whether it’s calculating factorials, generating complex sequences, or implementing cryptographic algorithms, BigInts provide the necessary tools. However, it’s important to consider the performance implications and optimize BigInt operations when necessary. Embrace the power of BigInt in your JavaScript applications and unlock new possibilities in numerical computations.

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Alka Vats

Alka Vats

Alka Vats is a Software Consultant at Nashtech. She is passionate about web development. She is recognized as a good team player, a dedicated and responsible professional, and a technology enthusiast. She is a quick learner & curious to learn new technologies. Her hobbies include reading books, watching movies, and traveling.

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