NashTech Insights

Telecom Testing: Introduction – Technology for Newcomers

Nhan Nguyen Hoang
Nhan Nguyen Hoang
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Telecom testing refers to the process of testing telecommunications systems and networks to ensure that they are functioning properly and meeting the required standards & regulations. This can include testing of hardware, software, and network infrastructure, as well as testing of specific features and functionalities such as call waiting, call forwarding, voicemail, and Wi-Fi connectivity. Telecom testing involves evaluating different telecom applications such as call center applications, IVR applications, VoIP applications, and more.

To do the testing in Telecom domain effectively, we need to understand the technologies & protocols which are using in this area. In this post, I would like to recall some technologies for new testers to work in this domain:


VoIP technology (Voice over Internet Protocol technology) is a protocol that allows voice communications to be made over an IP network. It is a popular technology used in the telecom industry for making phone calls over the internet instead of traditional phone lines. VoIP technology is often used in conjunction with other protocols such as SIP and RTP to provide a complete communication solution. Here are some VoIP technologies which you need to explore: VoIP, SIP, RTP, NGN, IMS, ISDN, PSTN, MPLS.

Wireless technology refers to any type of communication that does not require physical wires or cables to transmit data. This can include technologies such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular networks, and satellite communications. Wireless technology has become increasingly popular in recent years due to its convenience and flexibility, allowing people to connect to the internet and communicate with each other from virtually anywhere. You should understand the following standard: GSM, GPRS, UMTS, 802.11-WiFi.

Signaling & Protocol: Use to establish and maintain communication between two or more devices. Signaling refers to the exchange of information between devices to establish a connection, while protocols refer to the rules and standards that govern the exchange of information. Examples of signaling and protocols used in telecommunications include SIP, H.323, ISDN, Codecs.

The Open system interconnection model (OSI model): describes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system. It consists of seven layers, each of which corresponds to a specific group of functions that work together to transmit data from one point to another. There are 7 protocol layers:

  • Layer 1 protocol (Physical layer): is responsible for the transmission and reception of raw bit streams over a physical medium. This layer defines the electrical, mechanical, and functional specifications for the physical medium, such as cables, connectors, and signaling. Some examples of layer 1 protocols include Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and USB
  • Layer 2 protocol (Data link layer): are used in computer networking to provide a means of transmitting data between devices on the same network. These protocols operate at the data link layer of the OSI model and are responsible for framing data into packets, detecting and correcting errors, and controlling access to the network medium. Examples of layer 2 protocols include Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI.
  • Layer 3 protocol (Network layer): are used in computer networking to provide a means of transmitting data between devices on different networks. These protocols operate at the network layer of the OSI model and are responsible for routing data between networks, as well as providing addressing and error handling. Examples of layer 3 protocols include IP, ICMP, and ARP.
  • Layer 4 protocol (Transport layer): are used in computer networking to provide end-to-end communication between applications on different devices. These protocols operate at the transport layer of the OSI model and are responsible for ensuring reliable and efficient data transfer between applications. Examples of layer 4 protocols include TCP and UDP.
  • Layer 5 protocol (Session layer): This layer is responsible for establishing, managing, and terminating connections between applications. Some examples of layer 5 protocols include NetBIOS, RPC, and SQL.
  • Layer 6 protocol (Presentation layer): is responsible for data translation and encryption, as well as data compression and decompression. Some examples of layer 6 protocols include JPEG, MPEG, and SSL.
  • Layer 7 protocol (Application layer): is responsible for providing services to the end-user applications, such as file transfer, email, and web browsing. Some examples of layer 7 protocols include HTTP, FTP, SMTP, and DNS.

The knowledge is wide, and we never know when we can learn enough. It’s difficult for us to become experts in everything at once. The important thing is to have a basic understanding of our work areas and a solid foundation. This will help us switch between different areas more easily.

For instance, if we need to work on a project that involves testing a WIFI device, we should consider the following standards and protocols: IEEE 802.11. This includes various frequency bands (2.4GHz and 5GHz) and versions like 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac, and 802.11ax. Additionally, we should also consider security protocols such as WEP, WPA, WPA2, and WPA3.


Nhan Nguyen Hoang

Nhan Nguyen Hoang

I am a Senior Test Manager with 20+ years of experience in the software testing industry. With a strong background in computer science, I have managed testing projects across various domains successfully. I am now responsible for overseeing and managing the testing team in software development projects to ensure the quality of software applications.

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