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Understanding let, const, and Block Scoping in JavaScript

Alka Vats
Alka Vats
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Variable scoping is a fundamental concept in JavaScript that determines the visibility and lifetime of variables. With the introduction of ES6 (ECMAScript 2015), two new variable declaration keywords, let and const, were introduced, along with block scoping. In this blog, we will explore the usage and benefits of let and const, and understand block scoping in JavaScript through detailed examples.

If you want to learn about the comparison between typescript and javascript, you can refer here.


Block Scoping and Variable Redefinition:

The let keyword allows you to declare variables with block scope, which means they are only accessible within the block in which they are defined. Let’s consider an example:

function foo() {
  if (true) {
    let x = 10;
    console.log(x); // Output: 10
  console.log(x); // Error: x is not defined


Therefore, In this example, the variable x is defined using let inside the if block. It is accessible within that block but not outside of it. This helps avoid unintended variable hoisting and keeps the scope of variables confined to the appropriate blocks.

Additionally, using let to redefine a variable within the same block results in an error:

let x = 10;
let x = 20; // Error: Identifier 'x' has already been declared


Immutable Variables:

The const keyword allows you to declare variables with block scope that cannot be reassigned. They are constant and hold their assigned value throughout their lifetime. Consider the following example:

const PI = 3.14159;
PI = 3.14; // Error: Assignment to constant variable

Therefore, In this example, PI is declared as a constant variable and assigned the value of 3.14159. Trying to reassign a new value to PI results in an error. Constants are useful for declaring values that should not be changed and provide better code clarity.

Benefits of let and const:

a. Block Scope: Variables declared with let and const are limited to the block in which they are defined, reducing the risk of variable pollution and unintended reassignments.

b. Readability and Intention: Using const for constants and let for variables that need to be reassigned clearly communicates the developer’s intention.

c. Better Error Handling: let and const help catch errors caused by variable redeclaration or assignment attempts, providing more robust code.

Hoisting and Temporal Dead Zone (TDZ):

When using let and const, variables are hoisted to the top of their respective blocks but remain uninitialized until their declarations. Thus, this creates a concept called the Temporal Dead Zone (TDZ). Consider the following example:

function foo() {
  console.log(x); // Output: undefined
  let x = 10;


Therefore, In this example, accessing x before its declaration results in undefined due to the TDZ. It is best practice to declare variables before accessing them to avoid TDZ-related issues.


Understanding let, const and block scoping is essential for writing clean and reliable JavaScript code. These features introduced in ES6 allow for better variable management, reduce scope-related bugs, and improve code readability. So, In this blog, we explored the usage of let and const for block scoping and the benefits, they bring to JavaScript development. We also touched upon hoisting and the Temporal Dead Zone. Therefore, By leveraging these features, developers can write more maintainable and error-resistant code. Embrace let and const in your JavaScript projects and enjoy the enhanced control and clarity they provide. Happy coding!

Finally, for more such posts, please follow our LinkedIn page- FrontEnd Competency.

Alka Vats

Alka Vats

Alka Vats is a Software Consultant at Nashtech. She is passionate about web development. She is recognized as a good team player, a dedicated and responsible professional, and a technology enthusiast. She is a quick learner & curious to learn new technologies. Her hobbies include reading books, watching movies, and traveling.

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